Skeletal muscle, chronic heart failure and the role of the exercise.
AbstractPatients with chronic heart failure (CHF) show metabolic, hemodynamic and skeletal muscle alterations which decrease the life expectancy and are attributed to several factors. The focus of this review it will be on the questions related to physiological, metabolic, morphological and molecular alterations which affect the muscular system of these patients. Later, it will be discussed how the physical exercise contributes to this syndrome as well as the pharmacological interventions which are in investigation aiming the treatment of the same. Some muscle alterations are already described on the literature. For example, the more predominance of type II fibers, lower oxidative enzymatic activity, muscle atrophy and elevated concentration of cytokines that affect the muscle integrity. Thus, further studies involving cellular and molecular mechanisms of skeletal muscle in order to create strategies for prevention and treatment for patients with CHF are required.